We know an IC engine can be classified through many ways. One of the most useful engine is a four stroke engine which is mostly used in automobile industries.
These engines can be further classified into spark ignition engine or petrol engine and compression ignition engine or diesel engine. These engines have many similarities with some fundamental differences. We know that stroke is define as maximum movement of piston in any direction inside engine cyclinder.
This is basic principle of four stroke engine. An engine which completes four strokes into one power stroke or to complete one cycle is called four stroke engine. The crankshaft completes one revolution in two strokes. So it rotates two revolution in four strokes engines. Piston 2. Cylinder 3.
Combustion Chamber 4. Inlet and Exhaust Valves 5. Inlet and Exhaust Manifold 6. Spark Plug 7. Injector 8. Connecting Rod 9.
Crankshaft Piston Rings Gudgeon Pin Camshaft Flywheel These strokes are suction stroke, compression stroke, power or expansion stroke and exhaust stroke. Both SI and CI esp8266 weather station kit follow these four strokes to complete one cycle.
The working operation of these strokes can be summarize as follow. Suction means drawing charge air fuel mixture in SI engines and air alone in CI js regex into engine cylinder. It is drawn through inlet valve. The air is sucked due to pressure difference between engine cylinder and atmosphere in non-supercharged engine and by an air compressor in supercharged engines. Both inlet and exhaust valves closed and the piston compressed charge during this stroke.
The movement of piston is due to inertia or cranking of engine. This process takes place issestropically in both SI ad CI engines. Both inlet and exhaust valve closed during this stroke. In SI engines, spark plug generates a spark which ignites the fuel air mixture.
Because total fuel is available inside the cylinder, the burning takes place instantly so this process considered as constant volume burning for ideal cycle. Due to burning of fuel a high pressure force generates inside the cylinder which act as driving force of piston and crankshaft. In CI engines, injector injects fuel into combustion chamber.
The fuel burns due to heat generated during compression stroke. In these engines, fuel is supplied through injector so burring of fuel does not takes place instantly. The fuel burn uniformly, so this process considered as constant pressure burning for ideal cycle. The burnt gases exhausted from exhaust valve from engine cylinder to environment.The use of centralized lubrication systems for supplying either grease or circulating oil to components requiring lubrication is increasing dramatically.
These types of systems are now used on mobile and stationary industrial equipment, on process and production line equipment, and on machine tools. There are also some disadvantages, particularly if operations and maintenance personnel fall into the common trap of believing that a centralized lubrication system will solve all of their lubrication problems and cease to carefully inspect and properly maintain the system.
A second disadvantage is that a poorly designed or maintained system may cause some personnel to incorrectly adjust system components and create further malfunctions. The point to remember is that a centralized lubrication system is another machine component, and it must be periodically inspected and maintained like any other. A basic centralized lubrication system consists of a reservoir to hold the oil or greasea pump to provide flow to the systema control valve to direct lubricant through various linesa metering valve or valves to measure and direct the necessary lubricant to the lubricated componentsand a relief valve or line to allow excess lubricant to return to the supply reservoir.
In some systems, called direct systems, the pump serves to pressurize the lubricant and also to meter it to the application points. Others, called indirect systems, use a pump to provide pressurized lubricant but with metering valves at each application point.
There are two basic types of indirect systems: parallel or series. The metering valves operate simultaneously. Series or "progressive" systems contain metering valves in line.
After the main line is brought up to its operating pressure, the first valve operates, and then lubricant flow passes to each succeeding valve in turn. In this system, if one valve fails, they all cease to operate.
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There are many advantages in using centralized lubrication systems, including: Improved machine reliability Reduced labor cost for lubricant application Reduced machinery downtime for lubricant application More efficient use of lubricants Reduced cost of lubricants due to efficient use Improved overall lubrication of machinery Reduced lubricant waste through controlled consumption Potentially cleaner plant facilities and machinery due to reduced spills There are also some disadvantages, particularly if operations and maintenance personnel fall into the common trap of believing that a centralized lubrication system will solve all of their lubrication problems and cease to carefully inspect and properly maintain the system.
Related Articles. Advantages of the Latest Automatic Lube Systems. Advice for Using Single-point Lubricators. Featured Whitepapers. How to Cost Justify a Lubrication Program. Airborne Ultrasound: Find-and-Fix Leaks.
Strategies for Removing Water from Specialized Lubricants. Buyer's Guide. Grease Guns. Cleaners and Degreasers. Maintenance Services and Products.Proper lubrication of the engine is the single most essential ingredient to an internal combustion engine - without it everything would seize up completely.
Tuners are looking for engines that provide more horsepower and constantly pushing the engineering boundaries and require efficient lubrication. Keeping a good flow of cool oil is an essential if you want to maintain reliability and maximize your power output. A conventional sump is a reservoir at the bottom of the engine from where oil is pumped around the engine.
The oil is cooled de-aereated and stored in the reservoir where it can be pumped around the engine as required. You can also implement a dry sump by using a single vacuum that generates positive and negative pressures which help in pulling and pushing the oil in and out of the engine.
The engine gets cooled and lubricated by oil circulating inside all its components, feeding bearings and all the other moving parts, before getting drained by gravity to the sump at the engine base. A typical V8 engine would, therefore, come with a minimum of four scavenge pumps, and a pressure pump situated in the pump stack.
Even though the dry sump comes with many advantages, there are a few dry sump problems that can be expected as well. The primary advantage of a dry sump is the fact that it can create more power by generating extra crankcase vacuum with a dry sump pump. It improves the ring seal and keeps the rotating assembly free of any wind, thus allowing it to spin freely.
The dry sump also comes with increased capacity and remote coolers in addition to consistent and adjustable oil pressure. The fact that there is no oil in the pan allows it to be shallow, improving weight handling and distribution. Please share this page with your friends on :. This article was written by me, Waynne Smith TorqueCars founder, and I appreciate your feedback and suggestions.
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It is your responsibility to check and verify any car tuning tip, car styling tip or other articles content with a qualified mechanic before undertaking work or following instructions.What does a lubricant do? Your first thought might be of an oil or grease applied to machinery parts to keep them moving smoothly. However, there is much more to the story and to the functions that a lubricant serves. Take a look at the many advantages that proper lubrication can offer.
Lubrication does more than make surfaces slick and slippery. It provides a coating to prevent metal-on-metal contact between the surfaces of moving parts. No matter how polished and smooth these surfaces may appear, they actually have rough surfaces at a microscopic level. Tiny peaks called asperities stick out and scrape against opposing surfaces, causing friction. Friction interferes with smooth motion. It also causes heat, increases surface wear and can lead to equipment failure.
Proper lubrication creates a layer of film between moving parts to thwart friction, thereby promoting smoother operation and longer equipment life. The protective layer formed by lubrication helps safeguard component surfaces against rust and corrosion by preventing them from coming in contact with water or other corrosive substances.
Lubricants also serve as conduits that suspend and carry away contaminants to filters or other separators in the system where they can be removed and not harm components. Lubricants absorb heat, drawing it away from surfaces. Depending on the application, a lubricant either dissipates the heat or transports it to a cooling device. In either case, lubricants help keep operational temperatures in balance and reduce the risk of heat-related component damage.
By minimizing friction, wear, excessive heat, rust, corrosion, contamination and more, lubrication helps equipment do its job longer, more consistently and more effectively. Lubrication significantly reduces exposure to many causes of potentially costly equipment breakdowns and failures. Therefore, lubrication reduces costs to maintain, repair and replace equipment and parts. Plus, minimizing operational interruptions helps improve productivity which, in turn, increases revenue potential.
Our lubricants provide the best in performance, protection and fluid life. Contact us for more information and assistance with lubricant selection. Category: Technology. Protect Equipment The protective layer formed by lubrication helps safeguard component surfaces against rust and corrosion by preventing them from coming in contact with water or other corrosive substances.
Enhance Temperature Control Lubricants absorb heat, drawing it away from surfaces. Improve The Life Span, Efficiency And Reliability Of Machinery By minimizing friction, wear, excessive heat, rust, corrosion, contamination and more, lubrication helps equipment do its job longer, more consistently and more effectively.
Read More. Entry by Isel Staff Category: Technology. Oil analysis is a valuable tool for determining the condition of lubricating oil and the equipment it lubricates. It is best used as a Entry by Desiree Amaro Category: News.
The annual conference will beThere are two terms that are frequently used when discussing engine oil systems in your car: dry sump and wet sump.
Wet sump is the most common application, while a dry sump is frequently used in high performance applications. But why? What's the difference? And if a dry sump is better, why doesn't every car have it? There are actually a few reasons, and most of them are pretty practical. A dry sump tends to hold more oil than a wet sump in an extra reservoir, so that means it works better for sustained cornering since it's harder to starve the engine of oil.
It also allows you to mount the engine lower since it has a shallower oil pan, that improves the center of gravity.
6 Different Types of Lubrication System with PDF
However, a dry sump does cost more and is more complex than a wet sump system. That's why cars with track intent, like a Ferrari or a Corvette Z06, have a dry sump system while cars that are likely to be mostly on the road, like a Hellcat or a CTS-V, use a wet sump. Type keyword s to search. Today's Top Stories. We Don't Know Kyle Larson. Richard Pardon. Here's more info on how each system works and what the advantages are:.
Advertisement - Continue Reading Below. More From Car Culture.Emily Probst. Minimum quantity lubrication MQL has great potential for assisting in machining a wide spectrum of materials.
As manufacturers continuously seek to reduce manufacturing costs, waste and improve health and safety profiles, this technology can help in the drive to get there. So says Optis, a joint venture between TechSolve and Castrol. According to Optis, flood coolant uses as much as 60, ml of fluid per hour, while MQL typically uses less than ml per hour.
This is due to the coating of the interface between the tool and the material being cut with a thin film of lubricant, preventing heat build-up caused by friction. This significantly reduces the amount of fluid that needs to be procured, maintained and disposed of, saving money, manpower, and health and safety issues associated with residual fluid and contaminated chips. When properly applied, whether externally or through the tool, MQL can lead to improved surface finish and increased tool life.
Therefore, minimizing its use has major cost-efficiency implications for manufacturers. Also, there are many routes to doing so with many cutting operations primed to benefit from MQL, including turning, milling, drilling, circular and band sawing, reaming, tapping, routing and broaching. However, despite the opportunities and benefits MQL machining can offer, there are still challenges to overcome and some key considerations in implementation:. However, industry update has been relatively low so far.
This reticence may be due to how counterintuitive it seems that using less fluid will yield the same cooling and lubricating properties as traditional flood or high-pressure systems. With their strong attention to routine housekeeping, it's not surprising that this shop carefully researched all methods for removing tramp oil from coolant in machine sumps.
If tramp oil is allowed to build up in the coolant, the resulting shop odor, smoke generation and unpleasant conditions for the operators will quickly undermine all efforts to keep a clean shop and maintain an optimum working environment.
Unfortunately, along with this shop's successful growth rate came some new problems, the same problems experienced by many other companies: coolant odor, dermatitis outbreaks and rust.
An expensive lesson that many shops learn too late is that the automatic oil system on their CNC machine tool may not be completely automatic.
Since the automatic oil system is designed to give a warning when the oil tank is empty, many machinists simply assume all is well if the alarm doesn't go off. Connect at. Get registered here! Coolant Solves Odor And Dermatitis Problems Unfortunately, along with this shop's successful growth rate came some new problems, the same problems experienced by many other companies: coolant odor, dermatitis outbreaks and rust.
Troubleshooting Your Way Oil System An expensive lesson that many shops learn too late is that the automatic oil system on their CNC machine tool may not be completely automatic. Related Topics Metalworking Fluids. Find a Manufacturing Supplier or Service.
Access the Full Modern Archive. Browse New Products from the Editors of Modern.If you want to extend the life of your machine and keep it running at top performance, lubrication is your answer. Lubricating your machines and bearings is the single most important thing you can do. It is so important, that the number one reason for bearing failure is improper lubrication. Not only is choosing the correct lubricant for your application important, a schedule of lubrication maintenace is crucial as well.
Most people think lubricant is used just to make the machine parts move freely, while this is true, there are also many more advantages to using the right lubricant. There are different types of lubricants but we are going to focus on the advantages and disadvantages of grease vs.
Grease sealed bearing does not require relubrication for an extended period. Using the correct type of lubricant is crucial to the longevity and efficiency of your machine tools.
In addition, it can reduce energy consumption, which can save you money now and in the long run. But that's not all. We also do custom grease syringes for custom machinery lubrication. When your bearing application calls for grease rather than oil, our bearing grease range is globally accepted by industry standards. Using the right bearing grease can be critical to minimize friction, prevent wear, and extend the life of your bearings.
Thank you for submitting your details. The downloads will commence in 5 seconds. Lubrication: Grease vs. Requires a device that continuously feeds oil drip-feed, splash feed, recirculation system. Consumption Can be kept to the minimum necessary.
Significant amount required. Lubrication System Simple. Leakage Unlikely because of its seal forming characteristics. Possible if sealing system is adequate. Use for high-speed application Limited. Contaminant removal No.